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tree

Pterocarpus Marsupium

English Name  Indian kino tree
Synonyend        

Latin Pterocerplus Manaplum
Sanskrit Asana Bijaka
Hindi Bijasal, Vijayasar
Gujrati Biyo
Tamil Vengal
Malayalam Venna
Telugu Beddagi Asana
Kanand Hannemara

 

Distribution & Propagation

It occurs throughout India, in deciduous evergreen forests. It ls propagated by seeds.

 

Description

A medium-sized to large tree. 15 -30 m in height with dark brown or grey bark having shallow cracks, exfoliating inthe flakes and exuding a red gurnrny substance (Gum kino) on injury; leaves compound,imparipinnate. leaflets 5 – 7, coriaceous, oblong, obtuse, emarginate or even bilosed at apex,glabrous on both surfaces, main nerves numerous, prominent; flowers yellow in terminal panicles,corolla with crisped margins; fruits nearly circular, glabrous, flat, winged pods, convexly curvedbetween stipe & style, wings veined, seeds 1 – 2, convex bony.The heartwood is strong, lough, very hard and moderately heavy and is golden brown or reddishbrown on exposure with darker streaks. Aqueous extract of wood is yellowish blue and fluorescent.Flowering-fruiting January to June.

 

Chemical Constituents

The heartwood yields liquiritigenin. isoliquiritigenin. pyro-catechin, a neutral unidentified component,alkaloid and resin. The wood also contains a yellow colouring matter and an essential 0il and asemidrying fixed oil Kino contains soot-  glucosidal tannin, kinotannic acid. kinoin and kino – red inaddition to small quantities of catechol protocatechuic acid resin. pectin and gallic acid. The stemcontains liquiritigenin, tannin, isoliquintigenin. alkaloids and resin.

 

Parts Used      Bark. Heartwood, leaves. flowers, gum.

 

Properties

Bark and Heartwood – is astringent, bitter acrid, diuretic, cooling, resolvant. antiinflarnmatory,depurative, urinary astringent, haernostatic, anthelmintic, constipating, anodyne, alterant andrejuvenating. Flowers – are bitter, sweet, cooling, appetising and febrifuge. Gum – 5 bitter, styptic.vulnerary, antipyretic. anthelmintic, liver tonic. astringent, antispasmodic, etc.

 

Usages

Bark and Heartwood – is useful in vitiated conditions of Kapha and Pitta. elephantiasis. leucorrhoea,inflammations, fractures. bruises, leprosy, skin diseases, leucoderma, erysipelas. toxems. Urethrorrhea, promote healthy pancreas. rectalgia, rectitis, ophthalmopathy. haemorrhages, verminosis, diarrhoea dysentery,odontalgia, gout. rheumatoid arthritis. Cough, sexual debility. asthma. bronchitis and greyness of hairLeaves- are useful in boils, sores and skin diseases. Flowers – are useful in vitiat. conditions of Pitta,anorexia and fevers. GUM – is useful in spasmodic gastralgia, vitiated conditions of Pitta. boils. Gleet,urethrorrhea, odontalgia.diarrhoea, psoriasis, wounds and ulcers. helminthiasis, spermatorrhoea.toothache, intermittent fevers, hepatopathy, ophthalmia, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia.